Call and Put Option Guide

  1. Trading for professionals: Options trading
    1. Call Option Basics learn the basic Definition with Examples
    2. Call option and put option understanding types of options
    3. What Is Call Option and How to Use It With Example
    4. Options Terminology The Master List of Options Trading Terminology
    5. Options Terms Key Options Trading Definitions
    6. Buy call option A Beginner’s Guide to Call Buying
    7. How to Calculate Profit on Call Option
    8. Selling Call Option What is Writing/Sell Call Options in Share Market?
    9. Call Option Payoff Exploring the Seller’s Perspective
    10. American vs European Options What is the Difference?
    11. Put Option A Guide for Traders
    12. put option example: Analysis of Bank Nifty and the Bearish Outlook
    13. Put option profit formula: P&L Analysis and Break-Even Point
    14. Put Option Selling strategies and Techniques for Profitable Trading
    15. Call and put option Summary Guide
    16. Option premium Understanding Fluctuations and Profit Potential in Options Trading
    17. Option Contract moneyness What It Is and How It Works
    18. option moneyness Understanding itm and otm
    19. option delta in option trading strategies
    20. delta in call and put Option Trading Strategies
    21. Option Greeks Delta vs spot price
    22. Delta Acceleration in option trading strategies
    23. Secrets of Option Greeks Delta in option trading strategies
    24. Delta as a Probability Tool: Assessing Option Profitability
    25. Gamma in option trading What Is Gamma in Investing and How Is It Used
    26. Derivatives: Exploring Delta and Gamma in Options Trading
    27. Option Gamma in options Greek
    28. Managing Risk in Options Trading: Exploring Delta, Gamma, and Position Sizing
    29. Understanding Gamma in Options Trading: Reactivity to Underlying Shifts and Strike Prices
    30. Mastering Option Greeks
    31. Time decay in options: Observing the Effect of Theta
    32. Put Option Selling: Strategies and Techniques for Profitable Trading
    33. How To Calculate Volatility on Excel
    34. Normal distribution in share market
    35. Volatility for practical trading applications
    36. Types of Volatility
    37. Vega in Option Greeks: The 4th Factors to Measure Risk
    38. Options Trading Greek Interactions
    39. Mastering Options Trading with the Greek Calculator
    40. Call and Put Option Guide
    41. Option Trading Strategies with example
    42. Physical Settlement in Option Trading
    43. Mark to Market (MTM) and Profit/Loss Calculation

Why now?

This title may leave you wondering. Why are we returning to “Call & Put Options” after thoroughly reviewing the concept of options throughout 21 chapters? We initially tackled Call & Put Options at the start of this module, so why revisit it?

I personally think that understanding options is a two-step process – the basics plus getting to know the option Greeks. Since we already have a good grasp of the latter, I think it would be beneficial to go back and examine the fundamentals of call and put options in light of our knowledge.

Let’s have a quick high-level recap –

  1. If you anticipate the underlying price to rise, you would purchase a Call option which reveals your bullish sentiment.
  2. If you anticipate the underlying price will stay level or decrease, you would sell a Call option – not expecting an increase.
  3. Purchasing a Put option suggests a bearish sentiment on the underlying price, anticipating it to fall.
  4. You sell a Put option when you anticipate the market not to decline; you expect it to remain stable or increase, but definitely not drop.

After introducing the fundamentals of call and put options, our focus will now shift to comprehending the role volatile markets and time play in this concept. Let us dive in.

– Effect of Volatility

One should invest in a Call Option if they anticipate the underlying asset increasing in value. Suppose the Nifty index is predicted to increase by a certain amount. Would you still choose to purchase a Call Option?

  1. The volatility is expected to go down while Nifty is expected to go up?
  2. What would you do if the time to expiry is just 2 days away?
  3. What would you do if the time to expiry is more than 15 days away?
  4. Which strike would you choose to trade in the above two cases – OTM, ATM, or ITM and why would you choose the same?

Buying a call (or put) option is no simple matter – thorough investigation needs to be conducted before making a purchase. Analysis of volatility, time until maturity and the market’s directional movement are all necessary components.

I won’t address market direction assessment here; it’s up to you to decide which theory – technical analysis, quantitative analysis, or any other you want – best suits your needs.

By employing technical analysis, it is possible to predict that Nifty will rise 2-3% in the coming days. This raises the question of which option one should buy: ATM or ITM? Considering this expected growth, how can one best take advantage of the situation? This is what I intend to explore in this chapter.


A few applicable conclusions can be drawn from it.

  1. No matter how much time has elapsed, the premium always rises when volatility increases and falls when volatility decreases.
  2. A successful move with a long call option depends on having an accurate read of volatility; one should attempt to buy a call when volatility is set to rise, and avoid buying one when it looks like volatility will drop.
  3. In order to benefit from volatility when selling a call option, one should select the optimal timing by anticipating a decrease in volatility, rather than a surge.

It is evident that the selection of strike depends on anticipated changes in the level of volatility. In making this decision, consideration of the time remaining until expiry must be considered.

 – Effect of Time

Let us suppose volatility will rise as underlying prices go up. Buying a call is then clearly the right choice. What’s key however, is picking the correct strike. Indeed, one has to look at the amount of time remaining until expiry when they are deciding which strike to purchase.

You might find the chart a bit perplexing at first, but don’t be discouraged if you don’t comprehend it initially. Give it another try and you’ll get it!

Before we go forward, it is necessary to gain a grip on the time frames. Normally, an F&O series has a duration of 30 days, with the exception of February. Thus, I have divided it into two parts: the first part occurs during first 15 days and the second part the later 15 days. Please remember this while reading further.

Have a look at the image below; it contains 4 bar charts representing the profitability of different strikes. The chart assumes –

  1. The stock is at 5000 in the spot market, hence strike 5000 is ATM
  2. The trade is executed at some point in the 1st half of the series i.e between the start of the F&O series and 15th of the month
  3. We expect the stock to move 4% i.e from 5000 to 5200

Given the above, the chart tries to investigate which strike would be the most profitable given the target of 4% is achieved within –

  1. 5 days of trade initiation
  2. 15 days of trade initiation
  3. 25 days of trade initiation
  4. On expiry day


We should begin with the chart located at the top left. This figure displays the profitability of different call option strikes if executed during the first half of the F&O series, with a goal to be reached in 5 days.

Today, being the 7th of October, and the Infosys results due on the 12th, if you are feeling positive about them, a call option can be purchased with plans to close it in five days. The question is: what strike price would you select?

The chart shows that when there is plenty of time until expiration (in the initial half of the series), and the stock moves as expected, all strikes can be profitable. It is, however, far out-of-the-money options that make the biggest gains; 5400 and 5500 strikes appear to be particularly lucrative.

When you anticipate the target will be achieved in a short span, buying OTM options is advantageous. It’s advisable to select two or three strikes away from the At-The-Money (ATM) option. Anything beyond that would not be recommended.

Examine the chart on the top right; it presumes that the trader will engage in a transaction early in the series with an expected stock shift of 4%. However, a target must be accomplished within 15 days. Apart from this time-frame difference, the other elements stay unchanged. Pay attention to how profitability shifts; buying distant Out-of-the-Money (OTM) options is not sensible at all. In fact, investing in these OTM options may even lead to losing money (observe the profitability of 5500 strike).

In conclusion, when we’re in the initial phase of the expiration series, expecting a target to be reached within 15 days, purchasing ATM or slightly OTM options is wise. Going any more than one strike away from ATM should be avoided.

In the bottom left chart, the trade is initiated in the initial part of the series and the target expectation (4% move) remains unchanged but the time frame is distinct. Here, the goal is anticipated to be accomplished 25 days from when the trade was initiated. It’s obvious that OTM options are not advisable to buy, for in most cases one ends up losing money with them. As opposed to this, ITM options make sense.

At this point I have to reiterate something – do not be fooled by the low premiums of OTM options, as there is a substantial risk involved. Such options will not generate profits if the market moves slowly, as you need swift action in order for far OTM options to move smartly. On the other hand, choosing such options can prove profitable when the market moves by a certain percentage within a short amount of time.

At the beginning of an expiry series, ITM options are the ideal choice, as it’s conceivable that the target will be reached in 25 days. OTM and ATM options should be avoided.

The bottom right chart is practically identical to the third, with the only obvious difference being that the goal should be met on expiration day (or very close to it). The conclusion then is clear: under this situation, all option strikes except ITM will lose money. Therefore, traders should stay away from ATM or OTM options.

Let us examine a different set of charts. We must decide which strikes to select when trading in the second half of the series, ranging from the fifteenth of each month until expiration. Remember that time decay intensifies during this period, so as we approach expiry, the nature of options alters.



When you are considering purchasing a naked Call or Put option, ensure that the period and timeline for achieving the required target have been planned adequately. After this is done, you can refer to the table given to decide which strikes should be traded and more vitally, which ones should not.

We are almost done with this module. Going into the next chapter, I would like to demonstrate some of my simple trades over the recent days and explain the rationale behind each one of them. My aim is that these case studies give you an idea of how to approach simple option trades.


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